Wiki Contribution: Each class member must contribute at least one definition/explanation, one essential questions answer, or one timeline item. Ideally, however, this will be a group effort, with various class members elaborating on what others have contributed to gain a fuller understanding of the terms and concepts. You may also make contributions by adding relevant pictures, embedding video that further explains, or adding links to websites that will help us in our mastery of this material. A final requirement is that all elements below must be addressed, so even if everyone has made a contribution, this page isn't done until all terms are defined and explained, all questions are answered, and all timeline events are addressed.

Terms: Define and explain the significance of each of the following terms below.

Tallmadge Amendment- A proposal made by James Tallmadge saying that Missouri could become a state only if it was a free one. This was one of the considered plans for Missouri. The South opposed this but the North liked it. (p. 286)
gag rule- the 1836 setting aside of all congressional debate over slavery. This lack of discussion over the controversial topic was significant because it denied many abolitionists like John Quincy Adams the right to pass laws about slavery, keeping it legal and enraging the Americans who opposed it. Notherners called it the gag rule because it gagged or silenced any debate over slavery in Congress. (p. 289)
Henry Clay- A Kentucky Senator who created the Missouri Compromise and the California compromise, both of which were successful. (p. 291)
Fugitive Slave Law- A law passed by government due to many slaves running away and being housed by Northerners, that stated that anyone who was involved with a fugitive slave and housing it or even helping someone who is housing a fugitive slave, could be sentenced to jail time. (p. 292)
Uncle Tom’s Cabin- a novel written by Harriet Breecher Stowe that showed the horrors of slavery. This novel was written based off of the author's experience when she was in church one sunday: A slave named Uncle Tom was being whipped by his master, Simon Legree. Right before Uncle was killed from the harsh whipping he told his master, "Ye poor miserable critter! There ain't no more ye can do. I forgive ye, with all my soul!" This book was sold mainly sold to notherners, published in 1852, and plays were based off this tragic story as well. However in the south, the book and its author were cursed. (p. 292-293)
Brown’s raid (pp. 298–299) during the time that president Lincoln fought for the abolition John Brown decided to raid an arsenal of weapons and took matters into his own hands and provide weapons to slaves so they could rise up against their owners and demand their freedom. This frightened Southerners. The became afraid of a slave rebellion in which they might be killed by slaves rising up to fight for thier freedom. It excited Northerners. They regarded Brown as a hero, not a lunatic like those in the south did.

Election of 1860 (p. 299) an election where "presidential race showed how divided the nation had become." Lincoln won the election with 40 percent of the votes and had all the votes in the north 10 votes in the south, but he wasn't even on the ballot in any of the Southern states. One of the main reasons he was so succesful was because he was the only Republican candidate. All of the other parties were either small or had numerous candidates running.

Essential Questions
: Consult your Reading Notes and, when necessary, History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism. For each question below, record notes that prepare you to answer it.

1. What actions did the following individuals take to eliminate slavery: John Quincy Adams, John Brown, William Lloyd Garrison, and Theodore Dwight Weld? (See also Investigating History, p. 451.) (8.9, 8.9.1)
  • John Quincy Adams - Large Anti-slavery advocate. Said that if a civil war ever broke out, the president could use his power to abolish slavery. This is what Abraham Lincoln eventually did with the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • John Brown - Led the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856, also led the raid at Harper's Ferry in 1859 which was unsuccessful.
  • William Lloyd Garrison (see p. 451) He was a writer who wrote against slavery for three decades. his motto was "Our country is the world--our countrymen are man kind"
  • Theodore Dwight Weld (see p. 451) Was a speaker and a wrote speaches against slavery. He sent many petitions to congress about anti-slavery. most famous book was American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses.

2. What was the Northwest Ordinance, and how did it influence the spread of slavery? (8.9.3)
The Northwest Ordinance was a law established by Congress in 1787 that sectioned off territories in the northwest to governors and stated the needs of a territory in order for it to become a state. This law also got in the way of slavery by putting a ban on it in states north of the Ohio River.
3. Why did the admission of Texas and California increase tensions over the slavery issue? (8.9.4)
Texas was admitted as a slave state ad California was admitted as a free state. Texas was a huge amount of land aquired from Mexico. Having that much land available to slavery naturally angered all of the abolitionists in the North. They hated the idea. Southerers were very happy. The slave territory was opening up to the West. Could they extend across to the Pacific? The admission of Texas as a slave state also opened up the spaces for plantations and other farms etc. powered by slaves. When California was admitted as a free state, it made the Northerners very happy. Finally they had a state in the west. To make the Southerners happy, the Utah and New Mexico territories became open to slavery. That caused outrage among Northerners.

4. How did each of the following either raise or reduce tensions over the slavery issue: the States’ Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise, the Wilmot Proviso, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred Scott decision, and the Lincoln-Douglas debates? (8.9.5)
  • States' Rights Doctrine
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Wilmot Proviso
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Dred Scott Decision
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

6. Where did the idea of secession start, and why did it create a constitutional crisis? (8.10.3)
The idea of secession started when the pro-slavery states in the South became angry at Abraham Lincoln, the new president. As commander in chief, Lincoln declared that slavery should not be able to spread to the territories that lay to the west of the United States. Obviously, this enraged the Southerners, who believed that they were becoming a minority under the new leader. South Carolina threatened to secede, and several other states followed its lead. In Abraham Lincoln's inaugural address, he stated that secession was wrong and that it was unconstitutional. This was the beginning of the civil war.
8. What were the key causes of the American Civil War? (8.10)
On March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln was president of the not United States. Lincoln stated in his inaugural address, his belief that secession was both wrong and unconstituional. Then he went to the rebellious states to return in peace. One month later "hotheads" in Charleston, South Carolina they open fired on Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor on April 12th. After 33 hours of heavy shelling, the fort defenders took down the Stars and Stripes and replaced it with the white surrender flag. The news that the American flag had been fired at by rebels released a wave of patriotic fury in the North. The time for a compromise was over. These issues that divided the nation for so many years would be decided by war.

Timeline: Label and illustrate a timeline with the events listed below. For each event, include a creative and appropriate symbol near its proper place on the timeline. Write the date the event occurred and an appropriate headline for each event.
Missouri Compromise
Compromise of 1850
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dred Scott Case
Election of 1860
Civil War Begins
1820. In a congressional decision, it added Maine as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state. It also drew a line at 36° 30’ altitude across the Louisiana Territory, a boundary between slavery territory south, and non-slavery territory north.
1857, ended on March 6th of that year
1821, with the first fighting beginning on April 12th of that year in Sout Carolina
The Borderlines After the Missouri Compromise
The Borderlines After the Missouri Compromise

external image slavery1850.jpg
Stephen Doughlas
Stephen Doughlas

Dred Scott
Dred Scott

external image 1860map.GIF
external image civil-war.jpg